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1: Water Res. 2002 Sep;36(16):4053-63.Click here to read  Links

Inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts with ozone and free chlorine.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana 61801, USA.

The objective of this study is to investigate the synergy involved in the sequential inactivation of C. parvum oocysts with ozone followed by free chlorine at 1-20 degrees C. Primary ozone and free chlorine inactivation curves are characterized by an initial lag-phase, followed by one or two post-lag-phase segments, the first segment at a faster rate than the second, of pseudo-first-order inactivation. The kinetics of primary inactivation with ozone and free chlorine has a relatively strong temperature dependence, and vary both with oocyst lot and oocyst age. Synergy is observed for the sequential inactivation of C. parvum oocysts with ozone/free chlorine. Ozone pre-treatment results in the disappearance of the lag-phase and the occurrence of a secondary free chlorine inactivation curve with generally two pseudo-first-order segments, the first segment at a faster rate than the second. The kinetics of both secondary segments is significantly faster than the post-lag-phase rate of inactivation with free chlorine alone. The temperature dependence for both phases of the secondary free chlorine inactivation kinetics is weaker compared to that for primary inactivation with ozone or free chlorine. As a result, the level of synergy in sequential disinfection with ozone/free chlorine increases with decreasing temperature within the range relevant to drinking water utilities. Good agreement is found between the kinetics determined using the modified in-vitro excystation method of viability assessment and animal infectivity data recently reported in the literature for both primary inactivation with ozone, and sequential disinfection with ozone/free chlorine.

PMID: 12405414 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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